The Gross National Product (GNP) measures the economic performance of the whole economy. This indicator consists, at macro scale, of the sum of consumption spending, investment spending, government spending, and net trade. The gross national product refers to the sum of all goods and services produced by United States residents, either in the United States or abroad. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) refers to the sum of all goods and services produced in the United States, either by domestic or foreign companies. The differences are nominal in the case of the economy of the United States. GDP figures are more popular outside the United States. In order to make it easier to compare the performances of different economies, the United States also releases GDP figures. Consumption Spending is made possible by personal income and discretionary income.
The decision by consumers to spend or to save is psychological in nature. Consumer confidence is also measured as an important indicator of the propensity of consumers who have discretionary income to switch from saving to buying. Investment (or gross private domestic) Spending consists of fixed investment and inventories. Government Spending is very influential in terms of both sheer size and its impact on other economic indicators, due to special expenditures. For instance, United States military expenditures had a significant role in total U.S. employment until 1990. The defense cuts that occurred at the time increased unemployment figures in the short run.
Net Trade is another major component of the GNP. Worldwide Internationalization and the economic and political developments since 1980 have had a sharp impact on the United States’ ability to compete overseas. The U.S. trade deficit of the past decades has slowed down the overall GNP. GNP can be approached in two ways: flow of product and flow of cost. Industrial sector indicators Industrial Production indicator consists of the total output of a nation’s plants, utilities, and mines. From a fundamental point of view, it is an important economic indicator that reflects the strength of the economy, and by extrapolation, the strength of a specific currency.
Therefore, foreign exchange traders use this economic indicator as a potential trading signal. Capacity utilization indicator consists of total industrial output divided by total production capability. The term refers to the maximum level of output a plant can generate under normal business conditions. In general, capacity utilization is not a major economic indicator for the foreign exchange market. However, there are instances when its economic implications are useful for fundamental analysis.
A “normal” figure for a steady economy is 81.5 percent. If the figure reads 85 percent or more, the data suggests that the industrial production is overheating, that the economy is close to full capacity. High capacity utilization rates precede inflation, and expectation in the foreign exchange market is that the central bank will raise interest rates in order to avoid or fight inflation.